Coating materials can be regarded as thin films applied to protect or decorate a surface. Through heating the target materials, surface components are separated by evaporation in the form of atomic group or ion, which deposited on surface of the substrate. Then, thin films will form after the film forming process (Scatter-Island structure-Trapezoidal structure-Lamellar formation).
1. Coating Technology for Decorations
With the development of economy and progress of people’s life, coating technology are used to decorate watch cases and straps, costumes, lighting, glasses frames, indoor and outdoor decoration pieces, hardware bags, phone shell and screen, sanitary ware, and food packaging with more colors and shapes.
2. Usage of Coating Technology in Metal Cutting Tools
There are coating tools manufactured with the coating technology, such as gold, black and cobalt copper drill, milling cutter and mold, which are common in daily life. The gold ones are coated with TiN or ZrN. TiN is the first generation of the hard coating material that has been widely used. The black cutting tools are coated with TiC or CrN. Coating material TiALN makes the tools color of cobalt copper.
3. Coating Technology for Architectural Glasses and Auto Glasses
Architectural glasses need to have translucidus and heat insulation as two basic functions. Though the majority of sunlight can transmit through common glasses, the secondary cooling after absorption by the glasses causes great light losses. With the development of economy, common glasses can’t satisfy people’s needs any more. While the sun control coating and low-radiation coating improve this shortness of common glasses. Sunshine control coating can reduce the indoor temperature in low latitude areas, while the low radiation coating can help high-latitude regions to receive enough solar radiation energy and prevent indoor heat outflow. Glasses coated with TiO2 can be anti-fog, anti-dew and self-cleaning. Therefore, TiO2 is widely used in auto glasses.
4. Usage of Coating Technology in Screens
Without coating materials, almost all kinds of screens or displays can’t be produced. The ITO films play an important role in meeting the manufacturing requirements of those transparent electrical appliances.
5. Coating Technology for Solar Energy Utilization
Effective usage of solar energy requires special surfaces which can absorb sunlight as much as possible and reduce loss of heat radiation. Coating materials have a wide spectral selectivity range as well as good qualities of thermal stability, high temperature resistance. With high efficiency of heat transforming, coating materials can be used for manufacturing solar cells and solar collector tubes.
6. Coating Materials for Anti-counterfeiting technology
Anti-counterfeiting films need to be water-proof, wear-resisting and contain different colors. There are many types of anti-counterfeiting labels made from coating materials. From the perspective of usage, anti-counterfeiting films can be divided into reflective and transmission films. From the perspective of the way being coated, anti-counterfeiting films can be divided into direct coating, indirect coating or indirect coating cut.
7. Aircraft protective Coating Materials
Aircraft titanium alloy fasteners were originally coated by cadmium plating. However, the weakness of this method is that cadmium contains hydrogen. When aircrafts meet the corrosion of atmosphere and sea water, the coating is likely to be “cadmium crisp”, which even can cause “air crash”. In 1964, in order to solve this problem, people began to use ion plating method to coat aluminum on surface of titanium alloy fasteners. In the ion plating technique, the “pseudo diffusion layer” can be formed by applying negative bias to workpieces. Since the film structure is refined, its corrosion resistance can be remarkably improved.
8. Coating Materials for Optical Instruments
An optical film is a one-layer or multilayer film coated on the surface of an optical component. Optical films not only meet the design objectives, but also improve the system performance. Optical films can be used in many aspects, including laser systems, optical communications, optical display, and optical storage products. Coating technology contributes to the manufacture of many optical instruments like telescopes, microscopes, cameras, range finder, as well as daily necessities such as mirror, glasses, magnifying lens, etc.
9. Usage of Coating Technology in Information Storage
Coating materials have unique advantages as storage medium for information recording. Because the film is thin, therefore the eddy current loss can almost be ignored. Film material enjoys extremely rapid magnetization reversal speed. Meanwhile, the material is very stable since it’s parallel with the membrane’s surface. In order to record and store information more accurately, it is essential to use coating technology.
10. Coating Technology for Sensors
Most sensors use semiconductor materials whose electrical properties compared to physical and chemical quantities are extremely sensitive. The nature of the sensor’s surface and interface of semiconductor is significant. Therefore, coating technology is used to maximize the surface area. Besides, different coating materials are used in various sensors since they can meet the requirements of being industrialized at a low price.
11. Usage of Coating Technology in Integrated Circuit Manufacturing
The protective layer of the transistors and electrode lines made from polysilicon, aluminum, copper and alloy metals are inseparable from coating technologies, such as chemical vapor deposition, PVCD technology, vacuum evaporation of metal technology, magnetron sputtering technology and RF sputtering technology. Meanwhile, vapor deposition technology is one of the core technologies to manufacture integrated circuits.